"Law enforcement" utilization of canines/"detection dogs" deprives one the right to cross-examine a witness as afforded by the US Constitution.
In accordance with Article 6, clause 2 (the "Supremacy Clause") of the US Constitution; pursuant to the "Compulsory Process Clause" and "Confrontation Clause" of the 6th Amendment, to: confront, cross-examine witnesses, and in some cases, compel witnesses to testify; especially a "witness" which:
- is unable to testify beyond a reasonable doubt as to anything thereby depriving one of one's Constitutionally afforded rights to cross-examine a witness; and
- based on "law enforcement" [officers'] own determinations1, K9 utilization is fallible and can be corrupted, by administrators/bureaucrats/supervisors and/or handler(s)1 and/or trainers.
- is likely critical with establishing the possibility of probable cause; and
- K9's detect not necessarily the [active] presence, rather residual/minuscule amounts that: at some point in time might have existed there, could have came about from another mean(s), or could just be a "false positive"1; and
- "Officers file suit alleging wrongdoing in police dog training program - News - ReviewJournal.com," web.archive.orghttps://web.archive.org/web/20120816003253/http:/www.lvrj.com/news/officers-file-suit-alleging-wrongdoing-in-police-dog-training-program-160469575.html
- "K9 Officers demonstrate drug search - YouTube," youtube.comhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zz16usre8Kw&t=105
- "Detection dog: Criticism - Wikipedia," wikipedia.orghttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Detection_dog#Criticism